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Reduction of Relative Clauses

Konusu 'Yabancı Dil Eğitimi-The Foreign Language Education' forumundadır ve dderya tarafından 19 Mart 2015 başlatılmıştır.

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    RELATIVE CLAUSE’LARIN KISALTILMASI (Reduction of Relative Clauses)

    A. Present Participle ile Yapılan Kısaltma:


    Relative Clause cümlesi 'active' cümle yapısında iken 'Simple Present, Present Progressive, Simple Pastve Past Progressive* Tense’leri 'Relative Pronoun* u atıp hemen arkasından gelen fiili [Ving ] yaparak kısaltabiliriz.

    The man who shouts at his wife everyday lives next door.

    The man shouting at his wife everyday lives next door.

    The student who is preparing for LYS-5 should pay attention to Relative Clause Reduction.

    The student preparing for LYS-5 should pay attention to Relative Clause Reduction.

    The book which contains lots of errors Is not useful for you at all.

    The book containing lots of errors is not useful for you at all.

    The dog that barked the whole night was taken to the vet’s

    The dog barking the whole night was taken to the vet's.

    The children who were running across the street didn’t see the car.

    The children running across the street didn’t see the car.

    Bütün cümleyi niteleyen ‘which’ de bu şekilde kısaltılabilir.


    Her husband has always been a sensible man, which helps them to get along well with one another.

    Her husband has always been a sensible man| helping them to get along well with one another,!


    Present Participle kısalmasını 'Relative 1 I Pronoun* un arkasından fiil geldiği zaman yapabiliriz, whom, whose, where, why ve when* arkasından direkt fiil alamadıkları için bu şekilde t kısaltılmazlar.

    B. Past Participle ile Yapılan Kısaltma

    Relative Clause cümlesi 'passive' cümle yapısında iken 'Simple Present* veya ‘Simple Past*i ‘Relative Pronoun’ u atıp sadece [V3]’ü cümlede bırakıp yapabiliriz.

    • The politician who was elected president is travelling throughout the country.

    = The politician elected president is travelling throughout the country.

    • The book which is sold only in that bookstore has been published several times.

    = The book sold only in that bookstore has been published several times.

    v' ‘Present Progressive Passive ve Past Progressive Passive’de bu yapı ile kısaltılabilir. Her ikisi için de ‘being+V3 şeklinde kısaltılır.

    • The suspect who Is being Interrogated wilt be released in 3 hours because there is no evidence to keep him there.

    = The suspect being interrogated will be released in 3 hours because there is no evidence to keep him there.

    • The child who was being carried out of the sea was yelling.

    = The child being carried out of the sea was yelling.

    Tüm cümleyi niteleyen ‘which’ “past participle” yapısı ile kısaltılabilir.

    • He abruptly spoke up in the class, which was understood as being rude.

    = He abruptly spoke up in the class, understood as being rude.

    C. Perfect Participle ile Kısaltma:

    Relative Clause cümlesi 'active' cümle yapısında iken 'Simple Past, Present Perfect ve Past Perfect'l 'Relative Pronoun'u atıp 'having V3 haline getiririz. Eğer 'passive' ise 'having been V3 şeklinde kısaltırız. |

    • My teacher, who had gone to France for a lecture, came back last Monday.

    = My teacher, having gone to France for a lecture, came back last Monday.

    • The speaker who has demanded a high lectern

    is actually a short man.

    = The speaker having demanded a high lectern . is actually a short man.


    • The products which have been produced by that firm are of really high quality.

    = The products having been produced by that firm İ are of really high quality.

    • The man who killed his wife last night was known to love her so much.

    = The man having killed his wife last night was known to love her so much.


    The man having killed his wife last night was known to love her so much.

    D. Relative Pronoun’un Atılması (Omission of Relative Pronoun)

    Tanımladığımız isim nesne konumunda ise ‘Defining’ lerde kullandığımız whom, who, that cümleden atılabilir. ‘Non-Defining’lerde kullanılan 'whom' ve 'who' ise cümleden nesne konumunda olduğu için atılamaz.

    The man whom I helped during the exam got a higher mark than me.

    The man I helped during the exam got a higher mark than me.


    Ancak burada Relative Clause’larm kısaltılması ile Relative Pronoun’un atılması arasındaki farka dikkat ediniz. Relative Pronoun’un atılmasında sadece cümledeki Relative Pronoun atılırken kısaltılmada ise hem pronoun atılır, hem de fiilde daha önce bahsettiğimiz gibi bazı değişiklikler yaparız.


    The girl who I know very well has gone mad.

    The girl I know very well has gone mad. (Omission)

    The girl who studies very hard is the most hard working of us.

    The girl studying very hard is the most hard working of us. (Reduction)

    The house which is on fire belongs to a friend of mine.

    The house on fire belongs to a friend of mine.

    Mr. Andy, who was on the verge of bankruptcy, committed suicide.

    Mr. Andy, on the verge of bankruptcy, committed suicide.



    Infinitive ile yapılan kısatmalar


    The first, the second, the last, the only gibi sıra bildiren ifadeler, 'superlative* kullanımları, 'can, should, must ve be to’ gibi modal tamlamaları ve ‘somebody, anybody, something, anything’gibi yapılar infinitive 'to' ile kısatılır.

    Albert Einstein was the first person who explained the theory of relativity.

    Albert Einstein was the first person to explain the theory of relativity.

    She was the only person who managed to survive after the terrorist attack.

    She was the only person to manage to survive after the terrorist attack.

    Do you know somebody who can deal in furniture?

    Do you know somebody to deal in furniture?

    There was something which could please everybody ât th6 confsrsncs.

    There was something to please everybody at the conference.


    With ile kısaltma

    ‘Relative Pronoun’dan sonra ‘have* fiili kullanıldığında ‘have’ ve ‘Relative Pronoun* atılıp ‘with’ ile kısaltma yapılır.

    • Children who have nightmares generally cannot adapt to school life.

    = Children with nightmares generally cannot adapt to school life.

    • Workers who have a lot of stress reflect it directly on their social life,

    = Workers with a lot of stress reflect it directly on their social life.


    Appositive Kısaltması:


    ‘Non-Defining Relative Clauae’larda kullanılır. G Relative Pronoundan sonra 'be’ fiili kullanılır. E Relative Pronoun ve arkasındaki 'be' fiili atılır. Kısatma yapıldıktan sonra ‘Appositive Phrase’ başa çekilebilir.

    • Atatürk, who was the founder of the Republic of Turkey, died in 1938.

    = Atatürk, the founder of the Republic of Turkey, died in 1938.

    • Michael Schumacher, who is the champion of f-1, seems to be remaining the champion forever.

    = Michael Schumacher, the champion of f-1, seems to be remaining the champion forever.

    • The computer program which is efficient for our project costs a lot.

    = The computer program, efficient for our Project, costs a lot.

    • Bill, who is ashamed of being seen while stealing a book from the bookstore, isn’t seen anywhere these days.
    these days.



    Born in India,____________ his father served in the British colonial government, Orwell was educated at Eton,____________ was__ a respectful school.

    A) which/where B) that /that

    C) when / which D) where / which

    E) where / where

    Relative Clause sorularında bırakılan boşluğun öncesi bize yardımcı olur. İlk boşluğun önüne baktığımızda ‘India’ diyerek bir yerden bahsediyor. Aklımıza gelen ilk Pronoun ‘where’ dir. Ancak yerin arkasından doğrudan bir fiil geliyorsa ‘where’ kullanamayacağımızı unutmayalım. Non-Defining Relative Clause’larda that kullanamayacağımız için ‘B’ seçeneğini eleriz. Bir zaman vermediği için ‘C’ seçeneğini de eleriz, ikinci boşluğa baktığımız zaman ise bir okul adı verilmiş, boşluğun arkasından fiil geldiği için bu sefer ‘where’ kullanamayız, ‘which’ kullanabiliriz. Yani ilk boşluk ‘where’ ikinci boşluk ise ‘which’ dir.

    Yanıt D


     

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